Friday, July 12, 2024

Early days of AI:

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In late 1995, Alen Newell and Herbert Simon developed the logic theorist. This was the first AI program representing each problem in form of tree and can be solved by selecting the branch that would most likely result in the correct conclusion.

In 1956,John McCarthy organized a conference on artificial intelligence. John McCarthy is one of the founding fathers of AI together with Marvin Minsky, Allen Newell and Herbert A. Simon. In 1985,Charniak and Mc Dermott stated that” the ultimate goal of AI is to build a person”.

            Later, it was summed up by Haugland that “don’t say that the ultimate goal of AI is to build something that appears to be a person”. The fundamental goal of AI according to Haugland is machines  with minds not merely to mimic intelligence or to produce some cleaver fake .

            Nilsson’s definition of AI  is that AI is to build machines that perform tasks normally requiring human intelligence. To perform the same task  that humans require intelligence by machines the following should be involved in machines:

 Interaction with real world:

 This means that the machine should be able to perceive, understand and act .It involves things such as speech recognition and image understanding.

Reasoning and planning:

This involves modeling the external world, planning and decision making and deals with unexpected problems and uncertainties.

Learning and Adaptation:

Any intelligent system should be able to learn and adapt. It should have internal models  which should be always updated for example a baby learning to categorize and recognize the things example: Animal.

The areas that contributed to the growth of AI:

A huge number of disciplines contributed to growth of AI. The following are the list of areas that made huge impact on the growth of AI


 In philosophy It involves logic and methods of reasoning


One of the major contributions to growth of AI is mathematics. It involves format representation and proof Theory algorithms: computation – Decidability and tractability.


The third area that contributed to growth of AI is Probability and Statistics, It involves uncertainty and learning from the data.

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